Nudge of the Month

Nudging can be a child’s play…but it’s not!

 

A (funny) reflection on the nature of nudging

By Francesco Amighetti and Beatrice Del Frate

 

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Nudge interventions take several forms. Sometimes they can be very sophisticated and relying on long and complex empirical studies, sometimes they can be very nice, funny, and easy to implement. Among the nudges of this second kind, it is often possible to find nudges that ultimately look like little games to play. In fact, one example comes from one of the first and most famous nudge interventions to be known: ever heard of the so-called “urinal fly”?

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The urinal fly, as can be easily guessed, is a fly-resembling sticker that was introduced into men’s urinal bathrooms in Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport in the early 1990s as an incentive for users to aim at it. Looks like a game, right? A very simple game that was actually very effective in reducing spillage on the bathroom’s floor by as far as 80%! The effectiveness and simplicity of the intervention opened the door for the imitation and multiplication of similar interventions that actually looked like games that made it funny and engaging to do boring actions.

Among these, we can find more sophisticated versions of the urinal fly, such as the “urinal football goal” or the “bin basketball hoop”.unnamed (3)

Moreover, an object that was extremely subject to redesigns is the alarm clock, that began to become “smart”. What smart clocks do is easy: they play with cognitive biases to force you out of the bed. The first smart clock to be released was “Clocky”, the clock that runs away until you catch it and turn it off, soon followed by clocks designed to look like sport balls, that need to be thrown away to be turned off. In these cases, the clock works as a nudge because it gives an external environmental help to lazy people for battling with their weak self-control (of which people are aware, but cannot help to improve, especially in the morning). Many other clocks, however, go even further, doing the most annoying things to force you to wake up: even burning a dollar or donating to your least favorite charity if you don’t turn it off in time, therefore playing with the human loss aversion bias in a very exquisite way!

                          

Given the examples of funny nudges just cited (and the list could go on even more), it is almost too easy to think about another trend that is very popular nowadays: gamification

In fact, when in need of a vast and fast behaviour change, nudging is not the only strategy available on the market: on the contrary, gamification is another intriguing strategy that is mostly used in marketing and business companies to interact with consumers and, possibly, make them feel engaged with the products or services offered by the brand. But what exactly is gamification? The gamification phenomenon can be defined as “the use of game mechanics and game design techniques in non-gaming context” and, as such, gamification is – exactly as nudging – a powerful tool to drive and direct behaviour change.

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However, even if funny nudges seem to have so much in common with the gamification phenomenon, a consistent difference does exist between nudging and gamification. To disentangle them, it can be useful to remember one of the most commonly accepted definitions of nudge, as told by Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein in their book “Nudge. Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness” (2008): “A nudge, as we will use the term, is any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people’s behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives.” On the other hand, gamification relies, as said, on gaming mechanisms, which inherently consist in positive incentives such as rewarding the player with additional points, in-game rewards, the pleasure of reaching defined goals and the amusement of playing itself (let’s not forget that dopamine is the greatest reward for our brain!). In this way, gamification works by associating a positive behaviour with a positive reward – as a classical conditioning mechanism – and results in a motivation of the consumer driven by the promise of an external reward. From here, it is clear that the main difference between gamification and nudging relies in the concept of incentive or reward: gamification does exclusively revolve around the principle of the reward (even if it is not a purely economical one), whereas what nudging does, instead, is rearranging the environment around us exploiting human cognitive bases, to simplify decisions in a way to induce towards them without external incentives. To make this difference even clearer, here are some examples of gamification interventions that are essentially different from the funny nudges described before.

Recyclebankunnamed-1.png: a website app that uses gamification techniques (e.g. point, challenges, rewards, leader boards) to encourage sustainable behaviour like recycling, choosing greener products, pledging to take shorter showers, etc. The result of this campaign was a 16% increase of recycling in Philadelphia.

unnamed-8.jpgMobike: a Chinese company and the biggest Bike sharing platform available in the market that has developed a gamification system to ensure the respect of civil rules by all the users, in order to tackle the issue of thefts and vandalism – which is unfortunatelyvery common in Italy. Every account is linked with a score that can increase or decrease according to the behaviour of the cyclist (parking in appropriate areas, vandalism, signaling damaged bikes…), and that in the future will be linked with the tariff of the single user. To ensure appropriate parking behaviour, the app provides a map suggesting where to park your bike and hence helping you get additional points.

unnamedFitbit: a company that produces a series of wearable smartwatches designed to change lifestyle behaviours. These smartwatches can be considered the result of what can be summed up as “the gamification of healthcare”, an increasing trend especially in countries where obesity and the risk to develop diabetes are high. The system is aimed at making people feeling more engaged in their attempts to feel better and healthier. The software, designed to be attractive, motivates you through daily health goals that, when achieved, unlock points that can be used to get shopping discounts or even money!

In conclusion, we cannot deny that in few years both nudge and gamification applications have spread across any aspect of life going in similar directions. However, while certainly hoping that they can continue working in parallel or in synergy (with potentially interesting outcomes!), it is also equally important to always keep in mind that, however similar, they are two different strategies that work with very different cognitive mechanisms.

 

SOURCES

R. H. Thaler, C. R. Sunstein (2008), Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness, Penguin Books.

www.usimprints.com

robdorscheidt.wordpress.com

www.linkedin.com/pulse/

community.lithium.com

www.wired.com

www.recyclebank.com

www.nudgeitalia.it

www.milanoweekend.it

knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu

www.aarp.org

 

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Nudge of the Month

App(lication)s of Behavioral Economics

By Francesco Amighetti and Beatrice Del Frate

The core principle that is at the heart of the nudge theory is that “change comes not from the inside, but the outside”, as clearly expressed by Dan Ariely – professor of psychology and behavioral economics and director of the Center for Advanced Hindsight at Duke University. For this reason, the great majority of nudge interventions consists in the re-shaping of the environment where crucial choices have to take place. 

However, as the world and technology are constantly developing, so are the ways of implementing nudges. In days where everyone owns a smartphone and constantly uses it, a new and functional possibility to nudge without having to impact the outer environment comes precisely from smartphone apps. In fact, a large number of apps are nowadays being developed with insights from Behavioral Science, which contribute to make the apps we use smarter and more useful. These apps, in turn, help us behave in a smarter way in different aspects of our lives. 

Two interesting examples concern the issues of following medical therapies more closely and saving more money. In both cases, choices are bound to our innate cognitive limitation in dealing with intertemporal choices, which makes it difficult for us to follow a greater goal in the future at the expense of a smaller but instant reward. Let’s see how apps can tackle  this issue.

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A health-saving app: Wellth

According to the World Health Organization, patient nonadherence to therapy is a worldwide problem that should be taken seriously into consideration. 45% of the US population suffer from chronic pathologies and in developed countries only 50% of those patients take the medication they have been prescribed. Nonadherence is a costly issue: in the US it is estimated to cause 125.000 deaths every year and a national cash outflow of $289 billion.

While pervasiveness of technology and its user-friendliness are often exploited to improve healthcare services and their outcomes, behavioural economics innovations have been introduced only recently to tackle these problems. Wellth, a start-up based in Brooklyn, is a smartphone app that highlighted the opportunities coming from the connection between these two concepts.

Designed especially for heart attack post-discharge adherence, daily weight monitoring, diabetes care-plans adherence, and lung diseases self-management, Wellth combines technology with behavioural economics, leveraging financial loss incentives in order to change patients’ behaviour.

How does it work? The hospital deposits $150 into your account as soon as you start to follow your medication plan. Every day for 3 months, Wellth sends you reminders and monitors your adherence using the camera (e.g. taking a snap of you taking the pills). Any time you do not comply with the plan, you lose $2 per day.

In spite of appearing trivial at first glance, it brings consistent results: developers claimed that it is possible to obtain a 40% or better reduction to readmissions through the app, leading to higher-level patient satisfaction and greater cost savings for both patients and healthcare companies.

 

Wellth

 

A money-saving app: Qapital

Everyone wants to save money. But, everyone also finds it almost impossible to do so. Qapital is a Swedish startup that has developed an interesting app for this reason, with the investment and counseling of professor Ariely himself.

How does it work? The idea behind the app is simple: make something difficult easy and fun. More precisely, Qapital makes you save “just by doing the things you do”. In practice, this means that the act of saving is transferred into daily activities.

It all starts with setting a goal and the money needed for it, as a way to keep motivated. Afterwards, the app – which is connected with users’ credit cards – makes you set saving rules: mechanisms that allow the app itself to keep and save a set amount of money whenever performing a given action. For example, the “round up rule” saves 75 cents for every $2.25 spent for a bus ticket; the “spend less rule” asks you to spend less than $20 at Starbucks per week and keeps the rest as saving; the “guilty pleasure rule” holds extra money back whenever food is ordered online; and so on. Of course, rules are customizable in order to adjust to everyone’s daily habits and routine.

In practice, what Qapital does is nudging to break down a large saving into smaller day by day savings. In this way, it tackles the problem of intertemporal choice by making the goal closer and more achievable. It also reshapes the psychological perception of the act of saving itself, which goes from being an effort that requires great self-control to being something within everyone’s reach. 

Quapital

Sources:

https://wellthapp.com/home

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/13/upshot/answer-to-better-health-care-behavioral-economics.html

https://aha-365.ascendeventmedia.com/2016/epost2/technology-helping-to-advance-treatment-of-patients/

http://www.who.int/chp/knowledge/publications/adherence_report/en/

https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/11/savings-app-behavioral-economist/414522/

https://www.qapital.com/

 

 

Nudge of the Month

Good Resolutions and How to Keep Them

By Beatrice Del Frate and Francesco Amighetti

Christmas holidays represent a good moment to spend time with family and friends and to escape from routine. After majestic meals and never-ending celebrations, the onset of the new year is always accompanied by a list of desires, very likely the ones we had the previous year. Probably one of the most common wishes is to finally obtain that so much desired beach-body.

Obviously, immediate solutions might be to have a gym membership or to go to the swimming pool. Nevertheless, if you are starting from a period of prolonged inactivity, it may be better for you to begin with smaller steps…literally! A common suggestion for maintaining resolutions is to decompose bigger goals into smaller sets of sub-goals that are easier to achieve. To maintain the goal of becoming more active in the next year (and hopefully lose weight in the process), it may be helpful to keep in mind that there are also smaller and simpler gestures that can have a huge physical impact in the long run: this is the case of taking stairs whenever there is the chance.

Jan1

Luckily for us, nudges can help do this without much thinking. Stairs nudging is one of the most famous nudge cases: it is simple to implement and monitor and it has a high degree of effectiveness. Principally, stairs are made more attractive through bright colours and visual signals, and/or through motivational quotes and messages (like the calories burned for each step). Here are some creative and smart examples.

Catching the underground?

Redesigning of stairs in metro station is one of the most common and fun ways to implement this kind of nudge, usually done by city associations or temporary sponsors.

For example, in Lyon, in 2016, Pep’s association monitored a  350% increase in the number of stairs users simply by making metro station stairs more captivating. They used a colourful floral design and a simple but clear message: “Your good health is at the end of this staircase”. Furthermore, what they experienced is that people reported a higher intention to take the stairs again if confronted with the same choice in the future.

Jan2

During the same year in Hamburg the stairs of the metro station have been painted like an athletics red track, in order to publicize the Hamburg 2024 Marathon and consequently to incentivize the use of the stairs by travellers. Unfortunately, in this case no data have been collected, but given results from previous studies, it is likely to have been effective.

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Or catching a flight?

A very recent study conducted by Dr. J. Bellettiere and colleagues, published in December 2017, tested the effectiveness of stair nudges in a different context: San Diego International Airport.

For 22 days, the team introduced five signs with different messages at the starting point of the stairs and the escalators. The messages were the following: “Please reserve the escalator for those who need it.”, “Don’t lose time, lose weight. Use the Stairs.”, “Don’t waste Time, trim your Waistline. Use the Stairs.”, “You’ll get more stares if you use the stairs.”, and “If you want to feel younger, act younger. Step it up! Use the stairs.”. The messages were alternated for ten days, and between each a “no sign day” was added as control. Moreover, the subjects were stopped and asked to fill in a survey about their physical habits.

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The results showed that the signs doubled the number of people that decided to take the stairs (despite carrying luggage!). These included not only regular exercisers but also non-regular exercisers and – most importantly – non-exercisers.

These results taken together emphasize the efficacy of motivational signs in nudging people by reminding them their core values and goals.  

Sources:

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/nudge-stairs-experiment-urban-design-lyon-subway-nicolas-fieulaine/

http://www.filedier.nl/ov/via-de-atletiekbaan-naar-de-metro/

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/changepower/201711/take-the-stairs-in-busy-airport-you-will-if-you-see

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10935-017-0491-6

Nudge of the Month

Espresso…What else?

Just start with few questions for coffee-addicted people: how many coffees do you take per day and how much sugar do you usually consume per coffee?

We all know that the world divides into two types of people: those who like their coffee natural, and those who like it sweet (sometimes very sweet).

Coffee

If you happen to be in the second group, we have bad news for you. According to the WHO, sugar is one of the major causes of several diseases, especially obesity. Given that the limit of sugar that an adult male can ingest is about 50g per day (7-10 teaspoons of sugar), charging your coffee with extra sugar may not be the best choice for your health, especially if you drink more than simply one or two coffees per day.

Changing habits is easier in words than in action, but there is also good news for all sweet coffee lovers: several kinds of nudges have been developed to address the issue, and have the potential to find further applications in the food sector, for our health’s sake. Here are two simple but effective examples.

 

Do you like to take your coffee at the cafeteria?

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Have you ever realised that every time you go to the cafeteria taking a coffee, a tea or a cappuccino, automatically you accompany it with one or two sugar bags?

A study conducted in Italy has investigated whether coffee consumers are aware of how much sugar they consume each time they take a break.

The behaviour of two groups of people has been monitored for 6 days – each one before and after reducing the weight of sugar in each packet from 7g to 4g. The research has shown that the reduction in sugar consumed per client is statistically significant.

This means that reducing the weight of sugar does not affect the number of packets clients take, as people tend to pick up a fixed number of packets out of habit.

Or are you just looking for a quick break?

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Most of the times, busy students and workers prefer to just grab a coffee at the nearest vending machine. In this case, how often do they actually pay attention to choosing the amount of sugar?

Assuming that students do not change the default amount of sugar that is set by the machine (e.g. leaving the selection to 3 out of 5 units of sugar), a first simple way to reduce sugar consumption may be reducing the default level of sugar from 3 to 2. In this way, increasing sugar would be an active choice, that is likely not to happen. In fact, behavioural scientists have largely shown that people generally have a bias for maintaining the status quo.

A nudge has been hypothesized by Albert Gascon, a participant in a Nudge Competition on edx.org.
It consists of two intelligent strategies tested in a single nudge intervention.

Firstly, the choice of sugar may be put before the choice of the drink; secondly, instead of reporting “more sugar” and “less sugar”, the extremes of the scale may report the options “healthier” and “less healthy”. In this way, consumers are induced to pay more attention to their choice – instead of relying upon the default option – and are nudged towards a better choice through highlighting the consequences of their choices, that are too often not taken into consideration.

 

Sources:

State of mind http://www.stateofmind.it/2017/11/nudge-quantita-zucchero-caffe/

Albert Gascon http://albertgascon.com/behavioral-economics-in-action-be101x-nudge-challenge/

Our Work

The Increasing Challenge of Mental Health Problems

The key assumption in neoclassical economic theory is that individuals are perfectly capable of taking rational decisions, translated into the homo economicus ideal-type. But what happens if individuals are not in perfect health and have their decision-making process threatened?

Lately, much has been discussed about the rise in mental health issues, especially among youngsters. In a fast-changing world full of uncertainties, individuals may constantly focus on achieving perfection and success under highly competitive environments, threatening the efficiency of their decision-making processes. A recent report by Craig Thorley for the Institute for Public Policy Research in the UK shows that the number of students under 25 years of age disclosing a mental illness to their institution has increased fivefold over the past decade. What are the causes behind this?

The combination of academic, financial and social pressures is the key to understanding what motivated this phenomenon. It is undeniable that individuals have been living in environments that undermine mental health. For instance, a survey published by stem4, a teenage mental health charity, reveals that the top anxieties among 12-to-16 years old are exam worries, work overload, friendship concerns, lack of confidence and self-esteem, and feelings of being overwhelmed. In parallel, this new generation of youngsters feels more financially pressured given their large student debts, under the expectation that such investments will pay off in the future. Under scarcity of time and mental health, as defined by Mullainathan and Shafir (check our review of their book on Scarcity here), individuals have their “mental bandwidth” depleted, i.e. they become less mentally efficient. What can be done to avoid this?

mentalhealthtags

There is a need to not only prepare students better for academic challenges, but also to provide them with good health support systems inside universities. However, there are three underlying challenges. First, it is necessary to make students speak out for their feelings and enlist the help of a specialist to cope with pressure and avoid loneliness. Second, academic institutions ought to provide easy access to university counseling services, though it is not always the case that supply meets demand, and in less developed countries this type of service may not even exist. Third and more importantly, students may not realize that they need help, or that there is someone willing to listen to them.

Under these circumstances, the national health service and private institutions need to combine forces to find an innovative solution to the rise of mental illnesses. We need to understand its causes and how to tackle it, because it has huge economic costs. Also, we must work towards a society that is sensitive to these issues and realizes the importance of mental well-being.

References

Shafir, E. & Mullainathan, S. (2013). Scarcity: Why Having So Little Means So Much. Times Books, New York.

Thorley, C. (2017). Not by Degrees: Improving student mental health in the UK’s universities, IPPR.

The Guardian (March 26, 2017). Mental health problems rife among teenagers but teachers lack skills to help by Rachel Ellis.

The Guardian (August 29, 2017). The rise in student mental health problems – ‘I thought my tutor would say: deal with it’ by Donna Ferguson.

The Guardian (September 05, 2017). More students than ever suffer mental ill health. We must change our toxic world by Nihara Krause.

Our Work

Nudges for a healthy lifestyle – Part II

In the article Nudges for a healthy lifestyle – Part I”, we talked about the nudges created by governments around the world related to improving people´s lifestyles.

If you wonder why governments care about lifestyles of their citizens, the reason is mainly money. Unhealthy diet, frequent consumption of addictive substances (mainly alcohol or tobacco), and lack of physical movement are all widespread and may lead to “non-communicable diseases”, such as diabetes or cardiovascular diseases. The governments have two possibilities – either encourage the change in lifestyles and decrease the occurrence of such diseases or pay for the cure. Obviously, prevention is a cheaper choice and in case of lifestyle issues, also feasible.

Moreover, if governments understand human behaviour, their attempts to change it will probably be more successful. That is why Behavioural Economics can be helpful in this domain.

Part I of this article was dedicated to the nudges related to food consumption. Part II will discuss nudges concerning tobacco and alcohol consumption and physical movement.

 

As for physical movement, there has been a very simple nudge trial conducted in the City of Melbourne in Australia. To encourage people to take the stairs instead of elevators in a train station building, the City of Melbourne had the stairs painted in a colourful and catchy way (see Picture 1). It may not seem like  a very strong nudge; why would anyone struggle on the painted stairs if they can see them also from the elevators? But it seems that the citizens of Melbourne did not think like this – according to a report by the Behavioural Insights Team (that collaborated on this trial), the usage of the stairs increased by 25% during off-peak times and by 140% in  peak times!

Stairway-art-Zest-Events-Southern-Cross-Station-Melbourne

Picture 1

Source: Zest Events

 

Moving to tobacco consumption, the nudges used around the world are quite uniform. There are two major manipulations that have been implemented.

1) The first one is plain packaging, whereby the tobacco producers cannot use the package as a marketing space and have to comply with rules for uniform font, size and colour of the text, as well as uniform package colour. The space previously used by companies is now dedicated to health warnings, both in words and in pictures (see Picture 2). The rationale behind such a policy is that it decreases the appeal of tobacco products and at the same time, gives more importance to the health warnings, which should deter people from smoking. It seems like a good idea at first glance, but when one thinks about it more, the following doubts arise. Firstly, there is a large amount of brand loyalty among smokers, so it is not probable that they will stop smoking only because of a change in design. Secondly, there is the optimism bias that goes against the effectiveness of health warnings. People usually overestimate the probability of positive things happening to them and underestimate the probability of the negative ones. Hence, when they see a health warning, they may simply think “it happens, but to the others, not me”.

Copy_right_Action_on_Smoking_and_Health_story

Picture 2

Source: WHO

2) The second widespread anti-smoking nudge-based policy is the tobacco display ban. In the countries where it has been introduced, tobacco products have to be displayed so as not to be visible to the customers in the shops (with the exception of specialised tobacco shops, of course). Again, such policy goes against marketing possibilities of tobacco producers and the hope is that it will decrease the amount of impulse purchases, which are frequent mostly among the young.

There are several papers trying to evaluate the impact of these two anti-smoking policies, but there is no clear conclusion to be drawn. It seems that smoking is a very complex issue and is cannot be easily solved by using only nudges. Another issue is that in many countries, these policies have been implemented only recently, so it is too early to know their impact. Anyway, even if the nudges are not the solution in this case, maybe they could still complement some other policies to make a real change.

The last lifestyle issue is alcohol consumption and there is a very nice example of the use of nudges in this domain. At the Northern Illinois University, a simple marketing campaign based on social norms (i.e. informing the students about how many drinks other students have when they party) was enough to decrease students´ binge drinking.

(If you want to know more about this particular policy, see the article A Social Norms Approach to Preventing Binge Drinking at Colleges and Universities.)

To conclude both articles about the nudges related to healthy lifestyles, I would like to say one thing. Clearly, nudges do not automatically solve all problems. But as long as they are low-cost and do not harm anyone (such as removing the salt shakers from restaurant tables or painting the stairs in a train station), I think they are worth trying, because even a small positive difference is a step forward towards a healthier life.

Nudge of the Month

Attractive names of meals for healthier diets of children

Carrots or French fries? Fruit salad or a chocolate bar? These are the dilemmas that children face when choosing their meals in school lunchrooms. From convincing them that veggies will give them superpowers to ominous threats of what will happen to their bodies if they don’t eat healthy, there are few options left unexplored on how to get kids to eat right.

Unsurprisingly, when all else fails, BE swoops in and saves the day. Discarding classical solutions such as information campaigns, it offers a much simpler alternative: make the healthy options more tempting.

How? By changing their names. Several research teams in the US have tried this strategy in various school canteens and they found that making the names “seductive”, catchy or funny can induce children to eat healthier.

choice
Decisions, decisions…

Source: Tes Global Ltd

Hence, instead of offering carrots as “vegetable of the day” or simply “carrots”, call them “X-ray vision carrots” or “twisted citrus-glazed carrots” and you will increase the probability that children will pick them!

For reference, see Wansink et al. (2012) and Turnwald et al. (2017).

Our Work

Nudges for a healthy lifestyle

Part I – Food related nudges

Nowadays, non-communicable diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases or diabetes) are a serious problem, killing around 38 million people every year according to WHO. An interesting fact about them is that they are often caused by an unhealthy lifestyle – tobacco and alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity.

Obviously, governments worry about the health spending and so they try to come up with programs to solve these issues. But it seems that many times they fail to deliver the desired results. Why is that?

One of the reasons may be that the programs do not provoke the right actions. A traditional approach is to give people information, based on the assumption that they engage in unhealthy behaviours, because they do not know how harmful they are. Another traditional solution is to increase the costs related to certain behaviours, such as increasing the taxes on tobacco or alcohol. A common problem of these methods is that they may not lead people into action. They rely on the fact that people are rational, always weigh the costs and benefits and decide to do what is best for them.

But these programs fail to take into account that people may behave differently in reality. A mere information about the risks of smoking is not sufficient, since people suffer from an optimism bias – they do not believe that something bad could happen to them. There is also a present bias – the cigarette “now” is so pleasurable and the risk of cancer is “so distant”, which is why people will procrastinate their decision to join a stop smoking program.

The behavioural approach means taking these biases into account and creating nudge-like interventions that really lead to actions and consequently to a better health.

Here are some examples of nudges aiming at improving our diet:

1) A very successful and simple initiative comes from the Nordic countries – they use food labels to simplify decision-making process while grocery shopping. The Nordic Council of Ministers established a set of nutritional criteria, which have to be met in order for a product to get the Keyhole label. People know that if they see the sticker, it means the product is good for their health. Some evaluations of the Keyhole label showed that the level of awareness about it is really high (more than 90 %) and that it truly helps people to choose healthier food products.

Nøglehullet

http://www.norden.org/en/news-and-events/images/grafik/logos/noeglehullet/view

2) However, such labelling strategies do not work everywhere. Some countries (e.g. Australia, UK) came with the idea of using the Traffic Lights label, which uses the colours of traffic lights to indicate if a product is healthy (green), unhealthy (red) or somewhere in between (amber). It may seem like a good idea, but somehow the results from the countries that are using this label are mixed. Also, the Traffic Lights label faces a lot of reluctance from food producers. For example, several countries of the European Union fought hard against its use, in order to avoid their typical products being labelled red (e.g. Italy, famous for its meat products, among other things).

fsafoodlabels

http://www.foodpolitics.com/?s=traffic+lights

3) In the US, they have the Smarter Lunchrooms Movement that uses nudges in school canteens. It is run by behavioural economists from Cornell University and it seems to be quite successful. The interventions are minimal, such as changing the names of the food or changing the ways in which the food is displayed, but it has some positive effects on children. I bet you would also prefer to eat “X-ray Vision Carrots” than “The Food of the Day”.

4) To conclude, I mention my favourite food nudge that comes from Argentina. The problem with hypertension (i.e. high blood pressure) in the city of Buenos Aires became very widespread and so the city decided to remove salt shakers from the tables in the restaurants. Now, consumers may get salt only if they ask for it. This way the liberty of choice is preserved, but the choice architecture changes in favour of breaking the automatic habit of adding salt to your meal. The only pity is that there is no study evaluating the impact of this nudge!

Do you know about some other food nudges that governments around the world used to improve their citizens’ diets? Let us know about them!

Next article: Part II – nudge interventions to deal with smoking and alcohol consumption